Scientific Articles, Sources & Research


1.             Sehic A, Guo S, Cho K-S, Corraya RM, Chen DF, Utheim TP. Electrical Stimulation as a Means for Improving Vision. Am J Pathol. 2016;186(11):2783–97.

2.             Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Aug 18;151(4):264–9, W64.

3.             Mitchell P, Liew G, Gopinath B, Wong TY. Age-related macular degeneration. The Lancet. 2018 Sep 29;392(10153):1147–59.

4.             Buschini E, Fea AM, Lavia CA, Nassisi M, Pignata G, Zola M, et al. Recent developments in the management of dry age-related macular degeneration. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015 Apr 1;9:563–74.

5.             Girmens J-F, Sahel J-A, Marazova K. Dry age-related macular degeneration: A currently unmet clinical need. Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2012 Aug;1(3):103–14.

6.             Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Honeycutt AA, Lesesne SB, Saaddine J, et al. Forecasting age-related macular degeneration through the year 2050: the potential impact of new treatments. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Apr;127(4):533–40.

7.             Rudnicka AR, Kapetanakis VV, Jarrar Z, Wathern AK, Wormald R, Fletcher AE, et al. Incidence of Late-Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration in American Whites: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2015 Jul 1;160(1):85-93.e3.

8.             Wong WL, Su X, Li X, Cheung CMG, Klein R, Cheng C-Y, et al. Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health. 2014 Feb 1;2(2):e106–16.

9.             Seddon JM, Reynolds R, Maller J, Fagerness JA, Daly MJ, Rosner B. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 May 1;50(5):2044–53.

10.             Traboulsi EI. The challenges and surprises of studying the genetics of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 May;139(5):908–11.

11.             Hahn P, Acquah K, Cousins SW, Lee PP, Sloan FA. Ten-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration according to diabetic retinopathy classification among medicare beneficiaries. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa). 2013 May;33(5):911–9.

12.             Seddon JM, Reynolds R, Rosner B. Associations of smoking, body mass index, dietary lutein, and the LIPC gene variant rs10468017 with advanced age-related macular degeneration. Mol Vis. 2010 Nov 17;16:2412–24.

13.             Nutritional supplements in age‐related macular degeneration - Schmidl - 2015 - Acta Ophthalmologica - Wiley Online Library [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from:

14.             Mares JA, Voland RP, Sondel SA, Millen AE, LaRowe T, Moeller SM, et al. Healthy Lifestyles Related to Subsequent Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Apr 11;129(4):470–80

15.             Sin HPY, Liu DTL, Lam DSC. Lifestyle modification, nutritional and vitamins supplements for age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2013;91(1):6–11.

16.             Siemsen DW, Brown WL. Vision Rehabilitation of Persons with Age Related Macular Degeneration. Seminars in Ophthalmology. 2011 May 1;26(3):65–8.

17.             Holz FG, Sadda SR, Busbee B, Chew EY, Mitchell P, Tufail A, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Lampalizumab for Geographic Atrophy Due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Chroma and Spectri Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018 Jun 1;136(6):666–77.

18.             Jaffe GJ, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Boyer D, Heier J, Wolf-Schnurrbusch U, Staurenghi G, et al. Randomized Trial to Evaluate Tandospirone in Geographic Atrophy Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The GATE Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2015 Dec 1;160(6):1226–34.

19.             Yehoshua Z, Alexandre de Amorim Garcia Filho C, Nunes RP, Gregori G, Penha FM, Moshfeghi AA, et al. Systemic Complement Inhibition with Eculizumab for Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The COMPLETE Study. Ophthalmology. 2014 Mar 1;121(3):693–701.

20.             Mata NL, Lichter JB, Vogel R, Han Y, Bui TV, Singerman LJ. Investigation of oral fenretinide for treatment of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa). 2013 Mar;33(3):498–507.

21.             Petrukhin K. New therapeutic targets in atrophic age-related macular degeneration. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. 2007 May 1;11(5):625–39.

22.             Gehlbach P, Li T, Hatef E. Statins for age‐related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 May 8];(8). Available from:

23.             Askou AL. Development of gene therapy for treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2014;92(thesis3):1–38.

24.             Zhang K, Hopkins JJ, Heier JS, Birch DG, Halperin LS, Albini TA, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered by encapsulated cell intraocular implants for treatment of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. PNAS. 2011 Apr 12;108(15):6241–5.

25.             Mata NL, Vogel R. Pharmacologic treatment of atrophic age-related macular degeneration. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010 May;21(3):190–6.

26.             Velez-Montoya R, Oliver S, Olson J, Fine S, Quiroz-Mercado H, Mandava N. Current knowledge and trends in age-related macular degeneration: Genetics, epidemiology, and prevention. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa). 2013 Nov 26;34.

27.             Humayun MS, Dorn JD, Ahuja AK, Caspi A, Filley E, Dagnelie G, et al. Preliminary 6 month results from the argustm ii epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study. In: 2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 2009. p. 4566–8.

28.             Dorn JD, Ahuja AK, Caspi A, Cruz L da, Dagnelie G, Sahel J-A, et al. The Detection of Motion by Blind Subjects With the Epiretinal 60-Electrode (Argus II) Retinal Prosthesis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb 1;131(2):183–9.

29.             Stingl K, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Besch D, Chee CK, Cottriall CL, Gekeler F, et al. Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report. Vision Research. 2015 Jun 1;111:149–60.

30.             Stingl K, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Besch D, Braun A, Bruckmann A, Gekeler F, et al. Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2013 Apr 22;280(1757):20130077.

31.             Macular Degeneration Treatment with Nutrients and Micro Current Electricity - Merrill J. AIlen, O.D., Ph.D.; John B. Jarding, O.D.; Ralph Zehner, O.D. [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from:

32.             Anastassiou G, Schneegans A-L, Selbach M, Kremmer S. Transpalpebral electrotherapy for dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD): an exploratory trial. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31(5):571–8.

33.             Chaikin L, Kashiwa K, Bennet M, Papastergiou G, Gregory W. Microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of dry and wet macular degeneration. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015 Dec 17;9:2345–53.

34.             Shinoda K, Imamura Y, Matsuda S, Seki M, Uchida A, Grossman T, et al. Transcutaneous Electrical Retinal Stimulation Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Open Ophthalmol J. 2008 Aug 26;2:132–6.

35.             Natarajan S, Kar D, Uparkar M, Doctor P, Hussain A, Mhatre A, et al. Micro Current Neuromodulation in the Management of Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration - A Pilot Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Apr 28;50(13):4924–4924.

36.             Natarajan S, Uparkar M, Khulsange A, Gadgil D. Microcurrent neuromodulation in the management of dry age-related macular degeneration. Doc Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov 1;117(1):26–7.

37.             Tedford CE, DeLapp S, Jacques S, Anders J. Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue. Lasers Surg Med. 2015 Apr;47(4):312–22.

38.             Pinelli R, Bertelli M, Scaffidi E. The first clinical case of dry age-related macular degeneration treated with photobiomodulation and nutraceuticals: a protocol proposal. CellR4 [Internet]. 2020 Apr [cited 2020 May 8];8(April 2020). Available from:

39.             Merry GF, Munk MR, Dotson RS, Walker MG, Devenyi RG. Photobiomodulation reduces drusen volume and improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in dry age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017 Jun;95(4):e270–7.


41.             Perin C, Vigano’ B, Piscitelli D, Matteo BM, Meroni R, Cerri CG. Non-invasive current stimulation in vision recovery: a review of the literature. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 2019 Jan 1;Preprint(Preprint):1–12.

42.             Jolly JK, Wagner SK, Martus P, MacLaren RE, Wilhelm B, Webster AR, et al. Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Multicenter Safety Study of the OkuStim® System (TESOLA-Study). ORE. 2020;63(3):234–43.

43.             Schatz A, Röck T, Naycheva L, Willmann G, Wilhelm B, Peters T, et al. Transcorneal electrical stimulation for patients with retinitis pigmentosa: a prospective, randomized, sham-controlled exploratory study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jun 23;52(7):4485–96.

44.             Wagner SK, Jolly JK, Pefkianaki M, Gekeler F, Webster AR, Downes SM, et al. Transcorneal electrical stimulation for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa: results from the TESOLAUK trial. BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2017;2(1):e000096.

45.             Waizel M della V, Zuche H, Müller U, Scholl HPN, Todorova MG. Retinal vessel oximetry as a sensitive metabolic monitoring method for transcorneal electrical stimulation in retinitis pigmentosa. Acta Ophthalmologica [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 May 5];97(S263). Available from:

46.             Waugh N, Loveman E, Colquitt J, Royle P, Yeong JL, Hoad G, et al. Treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess. 2018;22(27):1–168.

47.             The Treatment of Retinal Diseases w/ Microcurrent Stimulation & Nutritional Supplementation - Restore Vision Lost to Macular, RP & Stargardt [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from:

48.             Kondrot EC. Initial results of microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of age related macular degeneration. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 2002 Oct 1;(231):65–8.

49.             Electrical stimulation of the brain and the development of cortical visual prostheses_ An historical perspective | Elsevier Enhanced Reader [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from:

50.            O’Clock, GD and Jarding, JB, “New Developments in the Use of Electrotherapy in the Treatment of Macular Degeneration, “ Abstracts of the 3rd Congress of the International Association of Biologically Closed Electric Circuits in Biomedicine Society, pp. 93-94, Beijing, China September 27-30, 1998.

51.           Allen, MJ,  Jarding, JB, and Zehner, R, “Macular Degeneration treatment With Nutrients and Microcurrent, “Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol 13, pp 211-214, 1998.

​52.             Shinoda, K; Imamura, Y; Matsuda, S; et. al.,  “Transcutaneous Electrical Retinal Stimulation Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration”; The Open Ophthalmology Journal, 2008, 2, 12=132-136, published August 26, 2008.

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