Scientific Articles, Sources & Research


1.             Sehic A, Guo S, Cho K-S, Corraya RM, Chen DF, Utheim TP. Electrical Stimulation as a Means for Improving Vision. Am J Pathol. 2016;186(11):2783–97.

2.             Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Aug 18;151(4):264–9, W64.

3.             Mitchell P, Liew G, Gopinath B, Wong TY. Age-related macular degeneration. The Lancet. 2018 Sep 29;392(10153):1147–59.

4.             Buschini E, Fea AM, Lavia CA, Nassisi M, Pignata G, Zola M, et al. Recent developments in the management of dry age-related macular degeneration. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015 Apr 1;9:563–74.

5.             Girmens J-F, Sahel J-A, Marazova K. Dry age-related macular degeneration: A currently unmet clinical need. Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2012 Aug;1(3):103–14.

6.             Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Honeycutt AA, Lesesne SB, Saaddine J, et al. Forecasting age-related macular degeneration through the year 2050: the potential impact of new treatments. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Apr;127(4):533–40.

7.             Rudnicka AR, Kapetanakis VV, Jarrar Z, Wathern AK, Wormald R, Fletcher AE, et al. Incidence of Late-Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration in American Whites: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2015 Jul 1;160(1):85-93.e3.

8.             Wong WL, Su X, Li X, Cheung CMG, Klein R, Cheng C-Y, et al. Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health. 2014 Feb 1;2(2):e106–16.

9.             Seddon JM, Reynolds R, Maller J, Fagerness JA, Daly MJ, Rosner B. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 May 1;50(5):2044–53.

10.             Traboulsi EI. The challenges and surprises of studying the genetics of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 May;139(5):908–11.

11.             Hahn P, Acquah K, Cousins SW, Lee PP, Sloan FA. Ten-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration according to diabetic retinopathy classification among medicare beneficiaries. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa). 2013 May;33(5):911–9.

12.             Seddon JM, Reynolds R, Rosner B. Associations of smoking, body mass index, dietary lutein, and the LIPC gene variant rs10468017 with advanced age-related macular degeneration. Mol Vis. 2010 Nov 17;16:2412–24.

13.             Nutritional supplements in age‐related macular degeneration - Schmidl - 2015 - Acta Ophthalmologica - Wiley Online Library [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from:

14.             Mares JA, Voland RP, Sondel SA, Millen AE, LaRowe T, Moeller SM, et al. Healthy Lifestyles Related to Subsequent Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Apr 11;129(4):470–80

15.             Sin HPY, Liu DTL, Lam DSC. Lifestyle modification, nutritional and vitamins supplements for age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2013;91(1):6–11.

16.             Siemsen DW, Brown WL. Vision Rehabilitation of Persons with Age Related Macular Degeneration. Seminars in Ophthalmology. 2011 May 1;26(3):65–8.

17.             Holz FG, Sadda SR, Busbee B, Chew EY, Mitchell P, Tufail A, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Lampalizumab for Geographic Atrophy Due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Chroma and Spectri Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018 Jun 1;136(6):666–77.

18.             Jaffe GJ, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Boyer D, Heier J, Wolf-Schnurrbusch U, Staurenghi G, et al. Randomized Trial to Evaluate Tandospirone in Geographic Atrophy Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The GATE Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2015 Dec 1;160(6):1226–34.

19.             Yehoshua Z, Alexandre de Amorim Garcia Filho C, Nunes RP, Gregori G, Penha FM, Moshfeghi AA, et al. Systemic Complement Inhibition with Eculizumab for Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The COMPLETE Study. Ophthalmology. 2014 Mar 1;121(3):693–701.

20.             Mata NL, Lichter JB, Vogel R, Han Y, Bui TV, Singerman LJ. Investigation of oral fenretinide for treatment of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa). 2013 Mar;33(3):498–507.

21.             Petrukhin K. New therapeutic targets in atrophic age-related macular degeneration. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. 2007 May 1;11(5):625–39.

22.             Gehlbach P, Li T, Hatef E. Statins for age‐related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 May 8];(8). Available from:

23.             Askou AL. Development of gene therapy for treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2014;92(thesis3):1–38.

24.             Zhang K, Hopkins JJ, Heier JS, Birch DG, Halperin LS, Albini TA, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered by encapsulated cell intraocular implants for treatment of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. PNAS. 2011 Apr 12;108(15):6241–5.

25.             Mata NL, Vogel R. Pharmacologic treatment of atrophic age-related macular degeneration. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010 May;21(3):190–6.

26.             Velez-Montoya R, Oliver S, Olson J, Fine S, Quiroz-Mercado H, Mandava N. Current knowledge and trends in age-related macular degeneration: Genetics, epidemiology, and prevention. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa). 2013 Nov 26;34.

27.             Humayun MS, Dorn JD, Ahuja AK, Caspi A, Filley E, Dagnelie G, et al. Preliminary 6 month results from the argustm ii epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study. In: 2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 2009. p. 4566–8.

28.             Dorn JD, Ahuja AK, Caspi A, Cruz L da, Dagnelie G, Sahel J-A, et al. The Detection of Motion by Blind Subjects With the Epiretinal 60-Electrode (Argus II) Retinal Prosthesis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb 1;131(2):183–9.

29.             Stingl K, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Besch D, Chee CK, Cottriall CL, Gekeler F, et al. Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report. Vision Research. 2015 Jun 1;111:149–60.

30.             Stingl K, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Besch D, Braun A, Bruckmann A, Gekeler F, et al. Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2013 Apr 22;280(1757):20130077.

31.             Macular Degeneration Treatment with Nutrients and Micro Current Electricity - Merrill J. AIlen, O.D., Ph.D.; John B. Jarding, O.D.; Ralph Zehner, O.D. [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 6]. Available from:

32.             Anastassiou G, Schneegans A-L, Selbach M, Kremmer S. Transpalpebral electrotherapy for dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD): an exploratory trial. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31(5):571–8.

33.             Chaikin L, Kashiwa K, Bennet M, Papastergiou G, Gregory W. Microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of dry and wet macular degeneration. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015 Dec 17;9:2345–53.

34.             Shinoda K, Imamura Y, Matsuda S, Seki M, Uchida A, Grossman T, et al. Transcutaneous Electrical Retinal Stimulation Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Open Ophthalmol J. 2008 Aug 26;2:132–6.

35.             Natarajan S, Kar D, Uparkar M, Doctor P, Hussain A, Mhatre A, et al. Micro Current Neuromodulation in the Management of Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration - A Pilot Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Apr 28;50(13):4924–4924.

36.             Natarajan S, Uparkar M, Khulsange A, Gadgil D. Microcurrent neuromodulation in the management of dry age-related macular degeneration. Doc Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov 1;117(1):26–7.

37.             Tedford CE, DeLapp S, Jacques S, Anders J. Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue. Lasers Surg Med. 2015 Apr;47(4):312–22.

38.             Pinelli R, Bertelli M, Scaffidi E. The first clinical case of dry age-related macular degeneration treated with photobiomodulation and nutraceuticals: a protocol proposal. CellR4 [Internet]. 2020 Apr [cited 2020 May 8];8(April 2020). Available from:

39.             Merry GF, Munk MR, Dotson RS, Walker MG, Devenyi RG. Photobiomodulation reduces drusen volume and improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in dry age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017 Jun;95(4):e270–7.


41.             Perin C, Vigano’ B, Piscitelli D, Matteo BM, Meroni R, Cerri CG. Non-invasive current stimulation in vision recovery: a review of the literature. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 2019 Jan 1;Preprint(Preprint):1–12.

42.             Jolly JK, Wagner SK, Martus P, MacLaren RE, Wilhelm B, Webster AR, et al. Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Multicenter Safety Study of the OkuStim® System (TESOLA-Study). ORE. 2020;63(3):234–43.

43.             Schatz A, Röck T, Naycheva L, Willmann G, Wilhelm B, Peters T, et al. Transcorneal electrical stimulation for patients with retinitis pigmentosa: a prospective, randomized, sham-controlled exploratory study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jun 23;52(7):4485–96.

44.             Wagner SK, Jolly JK, Pefkianaki M, Gekeler F, Webster AR, Downes SM, et al. Transcorneal electrical stimulation for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa: results from the TESOLAUK trial. BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2017;2(1):e000096.

45.             Waizel M della V, Zuche H, Müller U, Scholl HPN, Todorova MG. Retinal vessel oximetry as a sensitive metabolic monitoring method for transcorneal electrical stimulation in retinitis pigmentosa. Acta Ophthalmologica [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 May 5];97(S263). Available from:

46.             Waugh N, Loveman E, Colquitt J, Royle P, Yeong JL, Hoad G, et al. Treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess. 2018;22(27):1–168.

47.             The Treatment of Retinal Diseases w/ Microcurrent Stimulation & Nutritional Supplementation - Restore Vision Lost to Macular, RP & Stargardt [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from:

48.             Kondrot EC. Initial results of microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of age related macular degeneration. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 2002 Oct 1;(231):65–8.

49.             Electrical stimulation of the brain and the development of cortical visual prostheses_ An historical perspective | Elsevier Enhanced Reader [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from:

50.            O’Clock, GD and Jarding, JB, “New Developments in the Use of Electrotherapy in the Treatment of Macular Degeneration, “ Abstracts of the 3rd Congress of the International Association of Biologically Closed Electric Circuits in Biomedicine Society, pp. 93-94, Beijing, China September 27-30, 1998.

51.           Allen, MJ,  Jarding, JB, and Zehner, R, “Macular Degeneration treatment With Nutrients and Microcurrent, “Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol 13, pp 211-214, 1998.

​52.             Shinoda, K; Imamura, Y; Matsuda, S; et. al.,  “Transcutaneous Electrical Retinal Stimulation Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration”; The Open Ophthalmology Journal, 2008, 2, 12=132-136, published August 26, 2008.


  1. Traboulsi EI, “The challenges and surprises of studying the genetics of age-related macular degeneration”, American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2005, 139, 908-911.

  2. McConnell V, Silvestri G, “Age-related macular Degeneration”, Ulster Med Journal, 2005, 74, 82-92.

  3. Age-related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Risk Factors for the incidence of Advanced Age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Report no. 19, Ophthalmology, 2005; 112:533-39.


  1. John B. Jarding, OD; and George D. O’Clock, PhD; “Biocurrent for Macular Degeneration,” Chapter 47, in Bioelectromagnetic Magazine, PJ Rosch and MS Markov, Eds., Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, (2004)

  2. MJ Allen, JB Jarding, and R. Zehner, “Macular Degeneration Treatment with Nutrients and Micro-Current Electricity”, Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 13,  pp 211-214, 1998.

  3. George D. O’Clock, Ph.D., “Electrotherapy for Visual Disease Applications”, presented to the University of Minnesota Medical Devices Center Fellows Program, Sept, 22 & 24, 2008.

  4. Michael LD, Allen MJ, “Nutritional Supplementation, Electrical Stimulation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration”, Journal of Ophthalmal Med. 11993: 8; pp. 168-171

  5. Shandurina AN, et. al. “Clinical-Physiological Basis of a New Method of Restoring Human Vision by Direct Electrical Stimulation Injured of Optic Nerves”, Human Physiology. New York Consultant’s Bureau 1984: 1015: 316-341

  6. Butterwick, A; Vankov, A; Huie, P, et.a;., “Dynamic range of safe electrical stimulation of the retina”, SPIE Proceedings, Ophthalmic Technologies XVI, SPIE, Vol. 6138, pp 1-7;  (2006). 


  1. Cheng, N., et.a., “The Effects of Electric Currents on ATP Generation, Protein Synthesis and Membrane Transport in Rat Skin,” Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, Vol. 171, pp. 264-271, 1982.

  2. Zhao, M.,, “Electric Field-Directed Cell Motility Involves Up-Regulated Expression and Asymmetric Redistribution of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and is  Enhanced by Fibronectin and Laminin,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, Vol. 10, pp 1259-1276, 1999.

  3. Goldman, R. and Pollack, S., “Electric Fields and Proliferation in a Chronic Wound Model,” Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 17, 450-457, 1996

  4. Cukjati, D,. and Savrin, R., “Electric Current in Wound Healing:, Chapter 31 in Bioelectromagenetic Medicine, P.J. Rosch and M. Markov, (eds), New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004

  5. Butterwick, A; Vankov, A “Tissue Damage by Pulsed Electrical Stimulation”; Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, Vol 54, Issue 12, Dec 2007, pp 2261-2267.

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